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Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is best defined and diagnosed clinically as excessive bleeding that makes the patient symp- tomatic and/or results in signs of hypovolemia [1]. The most common definition of PPH is estimated blood loss 500 ml after vaginal birth. The inadequacy of this definition was illustrated in studies that assessed blood loss using various objective methods: the mean blood loss reported after vaginal delivery was approximately 400 to 600 ml, and clinicians were likely to underestimate the volume of blood loss [2].

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Carbetocin has been associated with a similar low incidence of adverse effects to oxytocin and at least as effective as syntometrine and may become an alternative uterotonic agent for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Further studies should be conducted to determine the safety and efficacy profile of carbetocin in women with cardiac disorders and to analyze the cost-effectiveness and minimum effective dose of carbetocin.

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We performed a descriptive analysis of guidelines from the American College of Obstetrician and Gynecologists practice bulletin, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, the Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecol- ogists (RCOG), and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada on PPH to determine differences, if any, with regard to defi- nitions, risk factors, prevention, treatment, and resuscitation.

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In women with threatened preterm birth, delay of delivery by 48 h allows antenatal corticosteroids to improve neonatal outcomes. For this reason, tocolytics are often administered for 48 h; however, there is no consensus about which drug results in the best maternal and neonatal outcomes. In the APOSTEL III trial we aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of the calcium-channel blocker nifedipine and the oxytocin inhibitor atosiban in women with threatened preterm birth.

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